Professor Milo Shaffer is interested in synthesis, modification, characterisation, and application of high aspect ratio nanoparticles (particularly carbon nanotubes and oxide nanorods). These materials have unique and often extraordinary combinations of properties; the question is to what extent these properties can be manifested in assemblies at a macroscopic scale. His group has developed and studied a wide variety of pure and composite systems based on nanotube/nanorods for both structural and functional applications across a range of length scales. The key challenges in almost all cases, is the synthesis of high quality material, introduction of the appropriate surface/interface chemistry, and assembly/processing into higher order structures. We have tackled these problems in situations as diverse as nanofibre-reinforced fibres and foams, hybrid photovoltaics, and supercapacitors.